Legislation sets the qualification requirements, but only at a very general level. • ensuring the quality of the implementation of competence demonstrations and assessment; • participating in the development of qualification structure and vocational qualifications; • processing learners’ rectification requests concerning competence assessments. The male/female share in vocational upper secondary programmes is equal. In addition, if the apprentice is a long-term unemployed jobseeker, lacks professional skills, or is disabled, the employer may also receive a state-funded pay subsidy. The aim is to steer the education system – both VET and higher education – to meet the needs of the labour market. Finnish VET in a nutshell. For example, in 2019, on the basis of a monthly salary of EUR 2 000, a learner will receive a gross education allowance of EUR 1 185.34 ([41]https://www.tyollisyysrahasto.fi/en/benefits-for-adult-students/full-adult-education-allowance/). Employment rate of VET graduates (20 to 34 years old, ISCED levels 3 and 4). At the beginning of VET studies objectives for competence development are recorded in a personal competence development plan for each learner. During the crisis there was only a slight increase in unemployment, and the difference between the unemployment rates of the three categories above remained quite stable. Specialised (usually owned by one private company or association, e.g. www.tilastokeskus.fi/tup/maahanmuutto/maahanmuuttajat-vaestossa/ulkomaan-kansalaiset_en.html#tab1483972171375_1). Teachers have control over their classrooms, lesson plans, and hours outside of teaching. Furthermore, skills once acquired need to be regularly updated and kept current, in order to benefit both employers and employees. According to the guidelines, training for trainers comprises three modules, providing participants with the capabilities required in order to: plan training at the workplace; provide vocational competence demonstrations; instruct VET learners and assess their learning; and impart vocational skills. The changing nature and role of vocational education and training in Europe. External evaluation includes the quality assurance of competence demonstrations and competence assessment made by the working life committees and evaluations made by the Finnish Education Evaluation Centre. First, teachers of vocational units must have an appropriate higher education degree in their own vocational sector. A holder of a specialist vocational qualification has vocational skills that meet work needs and that are highly advanced or multidisciplinary. It is almost three times higher than the EU-28 average (11.1% in 2018). Vocational Teacher Education is aimed for those who intend to teach or are already acting as teachers in vocational education or in universities of applied sciences in Finland. Financial support is available for full-time VET learners. It is also meant to give education providers an opportunity to meet regional and local labour market demands more effectively. Internal audits, benchmarking and peer reviews are other methods employed in evaluation. Specialised (usually owned by one private company or association, e.g. In many cases, they perceive more responsibilities and autonomy as recognition of their professionalism; time spent with young learners away from normal routine is also considered to be a reward. Representatives of the employees/self-employed and employers (altogether called ‘working life’ in Finland). Source: Finnish Centre for Pensions: Dropout from vocational education and training is far more common than from general upper secondary education, although it is not high in European terms (7.4% in the 2016/17 school year). Low reliability for ‘no response’ in Czechia, Iceland, Latvia and Poland. Guidance and counselling start at the beginning of basic education and continue through all education levels. VET provider collects feedback from learners twice: at the beginning of studies and at the end. In 2018, among 20 to 24 year-olds, 11.8% were neither in employment nor in education and training. The Parasta osaamista project set up a network for improving VET teacher’s CPD. After graduating, you are a teacher who has completed the professional teacher education and training that qualifies for teaching in Finland. The CPD obligation of teaching staff is defined partly in legislation and partly in the collective agreement negotiated between the Trade Union of Education in Finland and the employers’ organisation. Finland has one of the highest shares of 25-64 year old people with higher education qualifications (43.7%) and one of the lowest shares with low qualifications (11.7%) in the EU. Anticipatory knowledge may be utilised, for example, in the national core curriculum, in curriculum planning and the development of the content of education. Organisation for Respiratory Health) vocational institutions, fire, police and security service institutions (national) and folk high schools, sports institutions, music schools and colleges (local) account for less than 10% of learners in initial VET. Eurostat table edat_lfse_24 [extracted 16.5.2019]. ), 160/180/210 competence points ([60]https://ec.europa.eu/education/resources-and-tools/the-european-credit-system-for-vocational-education-and-training-ecvet_en). A scholarship is available for those who have completed a vocational, further or specialist qualification. Source: Statistics Finland (Vipunen). Vocational education and training in Finland Vocational education and training (VET) is designed both for young people without upper secondary qualifications and for adults already in work life. The key competences for lifelong learning are: digital and technological competence; mathematics and science competence; competence development; communication and interaction competence; competence for sustainable development; cultural competence; social and citizenship competence; and entrepreneurial competence. In vocational education, teachers should have a Master’s degree or Bachelor’s degree. Training content is decided by individual employers and the teachers themselves. A personal competence development plan is prepared for each learner. communication and interaction competence; programmes that comprise work-based learning but are not apprenticeships or fall under a training agreement category. The new quality assurance guidelines are currently being discussed by stakeholders to be published by the end of 2019. 180 for initial/upper secondary vocational qualifications; 120/150/180 for further vocational qualifications; 160/180/210 for specialist vocational qualifications. Early leavers from education and training in 2009-18. Volume 3: the responsiveness of European VET systems to external change (1995-2015). In 2017, 43% of all male VET students studied in one particular field, i.e. ), demand for skilled labour and educational needs. To enhance the service capacity of VET providers, they have been encouraged to merge into regional or other strong entities. It is divided into primary education, provided in grades 1 to 6, to learners aged 7 to 12, and into lower secondary education, provided in grades 7 to 9, to students aged 13 to 16 years old. are determined by the Ministry of Education and Culture. Pre-primary education (esiopetus, förskoleundervisning) is compulsory and it is provided to learners aged 6 years old. Eurostat table tps00001 [extracted 16.5.2019]. Old-age-dependency ratio is defined as the ratio between the number of persons aged 65 and more over the number of working-age persons (15-64 years). Its purpose is to improve grades and to prepare for vocational education or familiarisation with the working life. The following activities are essential when assuring that vocational education and training meets the requirements of the world of work. An adult education allowance is available to employees and self-employed people who wish to go on a study leave for at least two months. mergers). Teachers have the responsibility and power of decision for participating in the education and they may receive support from society in the form of various study grants. The Vocational Upper Secondary Education and Training Decree (673/2017([57]https://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/2017/20170673)) defines the principles for recognising prior learning. For more information about VET in higher education in Finland please see the case study from Cedefop's changing nature and role of VET in Europe projectt [18a]Cedefop (2019). car manufacturers) and special needs (usually owned by municipalities and associations, e.g. Modularisation allows for a degree of individualisation of qualifications: The Finnish National Agency for Education reformed all 43 initial, 65 further and 56 specialist vocational qualifications in 2017-18. Regarding salaries and terms and conditions of employment, there are no remarkable differences between teachers in general education and VET. The further vocational qualification in horse care and management comprises eight competence areas and seven qualification titles (in parentheses): provision of equine-assisted services (provider of equine services); provision of horse breeding service (same as previous); provision of equine massage services (horse massage therapist); farriery (farrier); tack-making (tack-maker); riding instruction (riding instructor (FQ) ); training and coaching riding horses (trainer of young riding horses); provision of training services in harness racing (trainer of trotters). The model provides long-term data on changes in the demand for labour, natural wastage of labour ([30]A reduction in the number of employees, which is achieved by not replacing those who leave. Another challenge is the sometimes limited shop floor experience of teachers with a university degree. Once learners successfully complete all the studies included in their personal competence development plans, the VET provider grants a certificate for the entire qualification or for one or more units of the qualification. The housing supplement covers 80% of the rent, but may not exceed EUR 201.60 per month. Each student´s personal competence development plan must include recognition of prior learning. Each qualification has a number of competence points: Initial vocational qualification in horse care and management ([49]Qualification holders manage daily stable maintenance and horse care tasks and are able to carry out the essential maintenance tasks associated with horse care, such as care of hooves and tack. The fundamental goal of this reform was to reduce the number of qualification titles from 360 to 164 and offer broader programmes, strengthen the competence-based approach of vocational qualification requirements and the modular structure of qualifications. broadcasting equipment, electrical transformers. The VET provider collects the feedback from learners and saves the learners´ answers in the online system that has been developed for this purpose. Interest, repayment and other terms and conditions applying to the loan are agreed between the bank and the learner. Teacher education in Finland Teacher training in Finland is arranged by universities and vocational institutes of higher education. It is provided to children up to age six. Ehdotus tutkintotavoitteista 2020-luvulle). The assessment criteria determine the grades awarded for units in upper secondary vocational qualifications and the standard of an acceptable performance in further and specialist qualifications. Learner feedback and its collection are regulated in the legislation. Source: Education Statistics Finland (Vipunen): https://vipunen.fi/. In particular, regional anticipation activities have developed rapidly in the past decade. ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education. Source: Ministry of Education and Culture; Finnish National Agency for Education (2018). The plan details the guidelines and procedures adopted by the education provider regarding the implementation of competence assessment. Educational support and guidance also covers areas such as support for learning according to the individual capacity of the learners, school attendance and learner welfare. Source: Eurostat, lfsa_pgaed [extracted 16.5.2019]. 50% core funding is based on the number of students; it is important for forward planning and ensuring future provision of VET in all fields and for all students; 35% performance funding is based on the number of completed qualifications and qualification units; it is meant to steer education providers to target education and qualifications in accordance with competence needs and to intensify study processes; 15% effectiveness funding is based on students’ access to employment, pursuit of further education and feedback from both students and the labour market (. The ministries mostly finance development prognoses of branches, which also include the demand for labour. Most companies are small- and medium-sized. There is growing concern over the risk of social exclusion of young people. Continuing VET (further and specialist programmes) provides more comprehensive and specialised competences and requires labour market experience. Work-based learning is guided and goal-oriented training at a workplace, allowing learners to acquire parts of the practical vocational skills included in the desired qualification. The employer has no obligation to keep the apprentice employed after the training period is completed. Equal opportunities are a long-standing fundamental principle of the Finnish education policy. The main export sectors are ([10]Source: With the amendment to the Act on the Financing of the Provision of Education and Culture (532/2017) that entered into force at the beginning of 2018, a single coherent funding system was established for all VET programmes. Initial VET (for young people) and continuing VET (for adults) are organised under the same legislation and principles ([20]https://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/2017/20170531). The 2022 financing system for better performance. VET provides students with strong vocational competence. They provide education and training to more than 75% of initial VET learners. An employer or another representative of a workplace or other cooperation partner may also participate in the preparation of the personal competence development plan, when required. Teaching is a popular profession in Finland. a clearer range of qualifications that better meets the needs of working life; a single competence-based method of completing qualifications; competence-based and individual study paths for all. To qualify for the allowance, the applicant must participate in studies leading to a qualification or in further vocational training organised by a Finnish education institution under public supervision. The new strategy is supposed to cover all parts of the national quality assurance system: except the method that VET providers may select themselves. In fact, the word ‘theory’ is no longer in use. It provides students with instruction and guidance according to their personal goals and capabilities. The Finnish National Agency for Education decides the national requirements of qualifications, detailing the goals and core content of each vocational qualification. The demand and supply of contracts/work places are not always in balance. Working life committees are responsible for the supervision of qualifications. The learner can also include units from general upper secondary curriculum, other vocational qualifications (incl. The education offers a general pedagogical qualification for teaching at all educational … The proportion of women among applicants and teacher training learners has increased noticeably in recent years. Source: Eurostat, trng_lfse_01 [extracted 16.5.2019]. Luxembourg: Publications Office. Omnia offers: vocational training from basic to … In addition, school transport subsidy is available when the distance between home and school exceeds 10 km and the monthly cost of travel is at least 54 euro. The lending bank will check the loan guarantee details with the social insurance institution of Finland (Kansaneläkelaitos or Kela) when granting a loan. The share of early leavers from education and training was 8.3% in 2018. Upper secondary education (toisen asteen koulutus, utbildning pÃ¥ andra stadiet) is provided in grades 10 to 12, to students aged 17 to 19 years old. All qualification requirements share a common structure. The latter is now being addressed by the new financing mechanism that gives more weight to the effectiveness of studies and is pushing towards timely acquisition of qualifications. Vocational qualifications are structured in a modular way. They must represent employers, employees, teachers and, if self-employment is common within the sector in question, self-employed professionals. But companies gladly recruit people with work experience. The national qualification requirements define the required vocational competence, principles of assessment and how the competence is demonstrated. Finland attributes its success in education to getting the right people to become teachers, developing them into effective instructors, and putting systems and supports in place to ensure that all children benefit from excellent instruction. It defines how many there are initial, further and specialist VET qualifications: their share, titles and competence points (total and for common units; their division within the qualification is decided by the Finnish National Agency for Education).) VET education providers are responsible for providing the training. The amount of the one-time scholarship is EUR 390 and it is tax-free. Working life committees are tripartite bodies consisting of employers and employees’ representatives, teachers and self-employed people. For the period of theoretical studies, learners receive social benefits, such as a daily allowance and allowances for accommodation and travel expenses. A career as a VET teacher is generally considered attractive, reflected in the high number of applications to enrol in vocational teacher training programmes that invariably exceed intake. A bachelor’s degree is required in early childhood education and in vocational education … A study grant is available as soon as eligibility for child benefit finishes at the age of 17. Share of high, medium and low level qualifications: Early leavers from education and training: Continuing professional development of teachers/trainers: You must have Javascript enabled to use this form. It is divided into general (lukiokoulutus, gymnasieutbildning), and vocational (ammatillinen koulutus, yrkesutbildning). Teachers working as guidance counsellors in Finnish schools must have a teacher training qualification at Master’s level, supplemented by studies in guidance and counselling. There is also plenty of autonomy for continuing professional development (CPD) for VET teachers. This is mostly due to the ‘baby-boomer’ generations, born after World War II, reaching pensionable age. Dissemination of the data generated by skills anticipation exercises is an important element of the anticipation activity. However, work experience or prior qualifications are not a precondition for enrolling. They are drawn up by the Finnish National Agency for Education in cooperation with working life partners ([62]Representatives of the employees/self-employed and employers (altogether called ‘working life’ in Finland).). Duration depends on the prior learning of the student, especially in the case of further and specialist vocational programmes, and is defined in the personal competence development plan of each learner. Data from VET in Finland Spotlight 2016 ([3]Cedefop (2016). One year of full-time study corresponds to 60 credit points. Teacher Career Ladders. Members of these groups are representatives of employers, employees and self-employed entrepreneurs, as well as VET providers, higher education institutions, teaching staff, researchers and educational administration. The content of teacher training is updated continuously by vocational teacher education colleges. In general, there is a high degree of stakeholder involvement in skills anticipation activities. A training agreement period can also be conducted abroad, as an exchange period, e.g. Rapidly increasing youth unemployment globally proves that relying on traditional forms of education is not sufficient to foster vibrant economies. Eurostat table une_rt_a [extracted 20.5.2019]. Most education provision is publicly funded and free for learners from pre- primary to higher education levels. Also the Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church requires its employees to have education in the field. Vocational adult education centres (public and regional) mostly provide further and specialist VET. In the questionnaire, the learners respond to statements rating them on a five-point scale from one (strongly disagree) to five (strongly agree). https://atlas.media.mit.edu/en/profile/country/fin/ [accessed 2.4.2019]. Within this system, the learners acquire some experience during their studies and the learner and the company get to know each other. No final examinations exist in VET. Promoting employment and self-employment are key elements of VET. Periods of theory and in-company training alternate but a common pattern does not exist; it is agreed in the personal competence development plan. Demographic challenges will impact the availability of the labour force, growth of the economy and, thus, provision of welfare services. A loan guarantee can, however, also be granted to learners, who are not receiving a study grant, if they live with their parent and they are 18–19 years of age and attend a secondary level education institution, or if they are under 17 and live alone. In-company trainers (nationally referred to as workplace instructors) are responsible for supervising learners during their on-the-job learning periods or apprenticeship training in enterprises. In upper secondary VET, operating costs per learner vary between EUR 6 488 for all apprenticeships (companies cover most of the costs) to EUR 27 956 in special needs VET ([23]The most recent available data of 2017.). Two of these projects will be organised at their vocational institutions has been undertaken by the Ministry of and! Fã¶R yrkesutbildning ). ). ). ). ). ). ). ) ). 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